journal of biomedical informatics
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William Ed Hammond1,2*
1 Duke Center for Health Informatics, Duke Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA, Email:
2 Duke Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA, Email:
*Correspondence: William Ed Hammond, PhD, FACMI, FAIMBE, FIMIA, FHL7, Duke Center for Health Informatics, NC 27705, USA, Tel: 919-668-2408, Email:

Received: 15-May-2018 Accepted Date: May 22, 2018 ; Published: 06-Jul-2018, DOI: 10.24105/ejbi.2018.14.3.3

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This paper first looks at the several definitions of the word interoperability. Next, the paper addresses several of the distinct components that are factors in accomplishing interoperability: semantic interoperability, functional interoperability, stakeholder interoperability, consumer interoperability, business interoperability, privacy and security interoperability, and international interoperability. This paper discusses each of these components in terms of their current state relating to interoperability and suggests what changes might be made to achieve interoperability.