Astroglial tumours are a group of tumours derived from the astroglial cells. They belong to a group of most frequently diagnosed tumours of the nervous system. This group of tumours is variable in many aspects. The tumours differ not only morphologically, but also with their growth potential, the extent of invasive growth, their localization within the CNS and the clinical course of the disease due to their progressive features. The variability of these neoplasms is given by the sequence and type of genetic alteration in the course of the neoplastic transformation. According to the currently used classification, it is possible to differentiate between benign I.-II. forms (low grade glioma-I. pilocytic astrocytoma, II. diffuse astrocytoma) and malignant form III.-IV. (high grade glioma- I I I . anaplastic astrocytoma, IV. glioblastoma) of astroglial tumours. The number of vasoproliferative and necrotic changes, together with the number of cell divisions are the key factors for distinction between benign ad malignant tumours from the histological point of view. From the molecular-genetic point of view, it is the types and numbers of cumulating genetic alterations which are of the greatest importance. One type of significant alterations occurs in the p53, PTEN and EGFR genes.