Thyroid gland diseases are frequent in pregnant women. In the Czech Republic, there is not a screening for this disease. Our objective was to evaluate the initial cost of the study of screening of thyroid gland disease in pregnant women. Methods: We used simple statistical methods for comparing the cost of the study (examination of TSH and TPOAb) with the costs and efficiency when TSH- only or TPOAb-only screening would be performed. Screening of TSH only is 2.7 times cost- effective than screening of TPOAb. Screening of TSH only may lead to miss 77 patients with TPOAb positive results and screening of TPOAb only may lead to miss 77 patients with TSH positive results. Discussion: To achieve better sensitivity, it is necessary to perform screening of TSH and TPOAb together.