Many biomedical applications rely on peptide selfassembled nanostructures. One of the most promising applications among them is drug delivery. Good biocompatibility, low cost, customizable bioactivity, large drug loading capacities, chemical variety, selective targeting, and stimuli sensitive drug delivery at disease locations are just a few of the many benefits of peptide self-assembled nanostructures. Many researchers have looked into peptide self-assembled nanostructures like nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanofibers, and hydrogels for drug delivery applications. The basic mechanisms for self-assembling nanostructures based on peptides of various sorts and structures are introduced and reviewed in this review. The potential drug delivery applications of peptide self-assembled nanostructures, such as anticancer and gene drug delivery, are highlighted. Furthermore, peptide self-assembled nanostructures for drug delivery applications that are targeted and stimulus responsive.