journal of biomedical informatics
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Antibiotic use in the Population is influenced by Non-Biomedical Reasons

Author(s): Rizwan Saikh

Antibiotic use has expanded worldwide, contributing to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and necessitating immediate and comprehensive response. The goal of this systematic review is to find existing information on the factors of antibiotic usage in the outpatient setting so that future actions to enhance antibiotic use practises can be informed. Antibiotic overuse and misuse in humans, animals, and plants have been implicated as major contributors to antibiotic resistance (ABR). The vast majority of antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient settings in human medicine, with significant disparities in antibiotic consumption across geographic scales and health care sectors, raising issues about the underlying determinants. Beyond individual patient-related determinants, outpatient sector determinants of antibiotic use were classified as compositional, contextual, and collective, allowing for an investigation of potential area effects on antibiotic use. Age, education, occupation, income, and illness all had a clear impact on antibiotic use, according to the compositional determinants.

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