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Johan D. Smith*
 
School of Biological Sciences, University in Potchefstroom, South Africa, Email: [email protected]
 
*Correspondence: Johan D. Smith, School of Biological Sciences, University in Potchefstroom, South Africa, Email: [email protected]

Received: 02-Dec-2021 Accepted Date: Dec 18, 2021 ; Published: 25-Dec-2021

Citation: Smith JD (2021). Biomarkers are used in the Clinical Investigation of Health Impacts. EJBI. 17(12): 88-89.

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Abstract

For decades, biomarkers have been employed in clinical practise. Biomarker studies have entered a new age with the rise of genomics and other advancements in molecular biology, and they hold promise for early diagnosis and successful treatment of many diseases. A biomarker is a measurable trait that can be used to assess normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic reactions to a treatment intervention. They are divided into five categories based on their use in different stages of disease: antecedent biomarkers, which identify the risk of developing an illness, screening biomarkers, which screen for subclinical disease, diagnostic biomarkers, which recognise overt disease, staging biomarkers, which categorise disease severity, and prognostic biomarkers, which predict future disease course, including recurrence, response to therapy, and therapy monitoring efficacy. Biomarkers can reflect a number of health or disease features, such as the amount or kind of environmental exposure, genetic vulnerability, genetic responses to environmental exposures, markers of subclinical or clinical disease, or indicators of therapy response. Biomarkers have been employed in public health and clinical practise, as well as preventive medicine, diagnostics, treatments, and prognostics.

Introduction

The word „biomarker“ refers to a wide range of measurements that capture what is going on in a cell or organism at any particular time. Biomarkers are objective medical signals that are used to assess the existence or progression of disease, as well as the treatment‘s effects. Molecular, histologic, radiographic, and physiological properties can all be found in biomarkers [1]. Blood pressure and heart rate are examples of biomarkers, as are simple metabolic investigations and x-ray findings, as well as complicated histologic and genetic examinations of blood and other tissues. Biomarkers are quantifiable indicators of how a person feels and functions. Disease prevention and diagnosis, as well as determining individual illness risk and disease monitoring, are all applications of biomarkers in health care. They can also be used to assess a therapy regimen‘s safety or toxicity, as well as the effects of specific environmental exposures. Screening, diagnostic, susceptibility/risk, prognostic, monitoring, and safety are examples of biomarker applications. Validated biomarkers are currently widely used in basic and clinical research as well as clinical practise, and their use as endpoints in clinical studies is widely acknowledged [2]. Biomarkers help researchers better understand disease processes and how medications operate to treat them. This knowledge can be utilised to diagnose disease more quickly or to prevent it from occurring in the first place. Biomarkers can be utilised to improve the efficacy and safety of currently available drugs as well as to develop novel ones.

New molecular biomarkers have the potential to tailor disease prevention and management, allowing for more precise, safe, and cost-effective healthcare delivery, and ultimately better health outcomes. Biomarkers are essential in drug research; they‘re especially important because we need to track the impact of experimental medications on patients throughout clinical trials [3]. And one of the ways we accomplish that is by examining their impact on biomarkers. As a result, having a diverse set of biomarkers that can measure what we want to know about the effect of an investigational medicine in people is critical. Today‘s drug development faces numerous challenges, the most serious of which is the high failure rate. So even pharmaceuticals that have gone through the entire preclinical process, including all kinds of animal testing and other types of assays, have a less than 1 in 10 chance of making it to the market once they get into people [4].

Clinical medicine is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. Biomarkers are important in all of these areas. There are three sorts of biomarkers: exposure, effect, and susceptibility biomarkers. Preventive medicine aims to promote and preserve health and longevity in individuals and populations by using epidemiological approaches to identify high-risk groups, preventing and limiting disease and injury, facilitating early diagnosis through screening and education, improving the quality of the health-care system, and improving overall quality of life [5]. In a variety of ways, biomarkers play a significant role in illness therapy, prognosis, and management.

Several common diseases are quite diverse, as the same disease can have distinct phenotypes, be caused by different genetic processes, and respond to the same treatment in different ways. A considerable number of new pharmaceuticals and therapies have been produced as a result of rapid developments in molecular approaches to biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. However, the majority of these breakthroughs are still in the research stage. The combination of scientific rationale and the regulatory procedure is required to efficiently and effectively translate these discoveries into clinical practise. Biomarkers have been used in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and creation of medications for many years, but they have only lately demonstrated the power to change the health paradigm into a new era.

Conclusion

Biomarkers can reflect a number of health or disease features, such as the amount or kind of environmental exposure, genetic vulnerability, genetic responses to environmental exposures, markers of subclinical or clinical disease, or indicators of therapy response. As a result, biomarkers are critical in all areas of clinical medicine. Biomarker applications in clinical care will focus on many targets, prevention and prediction, personalisation, and collaboration in the future.

References